ELEMENTS OF ART + PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

VOCABULARY TERMS PDF – link

Elements of art

Form

The form of a work is its shape, including its volume or perceived volume. A three-dimensional artwork has depth as well as width and height. Three-dimensional form is the basis of sculpture.[1] However, two-dimensional artwork can achieve the illusion of form with the use ofperspective and/or shading or modelling techniques.[2][3] Formalism is the analysis of works by their form or shapes in art history or archeology.

Line

Lines and curves are marks that span a distance between two points (or the path of a moving point). As an element of visual art, line is the use of various marks, outlines and implied lines in artwork and design. A line has a width, direction, and length.[1] A line’s width is sometimes called its “thickness”. Lines are sometimes called “strokes”, especially when referring to lines in digital artwork.

Color

Color is the element of art that is produced when light, striking an object, is reflected back to the eye.[1] There are three properties to color. The first is hue, which simply means the name we give to a color (red, yellow, blue, green, etc.). The second property is intensity, which refers to the vividness of the color. A color’s intensity is sometimes referred to as its “colorfulness“, its “saturation”, its “purity” or its “strength”.The third and final property of color is its value, meaning how light or dark it is.[4] The terms shade and tint refer to value changes in colors. In painting, shades are created by adding black to a color, while tints are created by adding white to a color.[2]

Space

Space is an area that an artist provides for a particular purpose.[1] Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground, and refers to the distances or area(s) around, between, and within things. There are two kinds of space: negative space and positive space.[5] Negative space is the area in between, around, through or within an object. Positive spaces are the areas that are occupied by an object and/or form.

Texture

Texture, another element of art, is used to describe either the way a work actually feels when touched, or the depiction of textures in works, as for example in a painter’s rendering of fur. The feeling or look of the art work.


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

Source: http://www.j6design.com.au/6-principles-of-design/designprinciples-1024x640The elements and principles of design are the building blocks. The elements of design are the things that make up a design. The Principles of design are what we do to those elements. How we apply the principles of design determines how successful the design is.

The 6 fundamental principles of design are: balance, proximity, alignment, repetition, contrast and space.

The principles of design

  1. BALANCE – Balance in design is similar to balance in physics. A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. Balance provides stability and structure to a design. It’s the weight distributed in the design by the placement of your elements.
  2. PROXIMITY – Proximity creates relationship between elements. It provides a focal point. Proximity doesn’t mean that elements have to be placed together, it means they should be visually connected in someway.
  3. ALIGNMENT – Allows us to create order and organisation. Aligning elements allows them to create a visual connection with each other.
  4. REPETITION – Repetition strengthens a design by tying together individual elements. It helps to create association and consistency. Repetition can create rhythm (a feeling of organized movement).
  5. CONTRAST – Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements (opposite colours on the colour wheel, or value light / dark, or direction – horizontal / vertical). Contrast allows us to emphasize or highlight key elements in your design.
  6. SPACE – Space in art refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within elements. Both positive and negative space are important factors to be considered in every design.

The elements of design

  • LINE – The linear marks made with a pen or brush or the edge created when two shapes meet.
  • SHAPE – A shape is a self contained defined area of geometric (squares and circles), or organic (free formed shapes or natural shapes). A positive shape automatically creates a negative shape.
  • DIRECTION – All lines have direction – Horizontal, Vertical or Oblique. Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and tranquillity. Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality and alertness. Oblique suggests movement and action
  • SIZE – Size is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that of another.
  • TEXTURE – Texture is the surface quality of a shape – rough, smooth, soft hard glossy etc.
  • COLOUR – Colour is light reflected off objects. Color has three main characteristics: hue or its name (red, green, blue, etc.), value (how light or dark it is), and intensity (how bright or dull it is).

Watch this video to see it in action: